We are talking about a subject that has already been extensively studied , unfortunately it is a disease that continues to afflict many dog breeds, and that is why we need to talk about it again. Dysplasia is a degenerative condition, and it’s hereditary.
Although it is a multifactorial disease, genetic transmission seems to be the predominant cause.
Thanks to prevention we can stem the effects of hip dysplasia over time, thus avoiding future invasive interventions for the dog. In case of complications, the PRP may be a viable alternative.
Hip dysplasia consists of a malformation of the head of the femur that is unable to accommodate in the cavity of the pelvis (acetabular) and this produces friction and cartilage erosion. It mainly affects large, giant and molossoid dogs. Weight is an important aggravating factor. 
Other causes contributing to dysplasia can be environmental factors and dog nutrition. Environmental factors are for example, excessive physical activity at an early age, trauma or other pathological conditions. Nutrition obviously plays a key role, if we think that the weight of the dog can add additional stress to the compromised joint.
Obviously, the symptoms are easily recognizable in an adult dog,
• The Limp
• Type of stiffness
• The Pain
While in a puppy aged between 4 and 12 months abnormal movements, gait like a rabbit (bunny hopping) struggle to climb or descend scales or reticence towards physical activity in general, may be signs of early hip dysplasia. To rule out other diseases with the same symptomatology, the dog should be examined by an orthopaedic veterinarian. A diagnosis can be obtained by radiographic examination, combined with a hip extension test and an external hip abduction and rotation test.
The therapy aims to reduce pain, and to slow down the general conditions of the pathology, through a conservative therapy, pharmacological, surgical and with new methods of regenerative medicine.
The conservative approach consists in changes to the dog’s physical activity and diet. In particular, physical activity must be balanced. It is important to avoid loss of muscle tone, at the same time it is important to do not further compromise the joint.
For the pharmacological treatment the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Nsaids) or corticosteroid (not usable in the long term) is commonly used
The pharmacological option, is not shared by all the authors, because of the adverse effects (gastrointestinal and urinary disorders), moreover the drugs could also be responsible for the acceleration of the degenerative process. An interesting choice could be the use of Chondroproteins, that have no particular contraindications and can be used in a long term treatment.
Surgery is used for reconstructive, substitutive or palliative interventions.
To the first type of surgery belongs the pubic symphysodesis (JPS). A minimally invasive operation, carried out on 4-5 months puppies . It allows to orient the acetaboli correctly in order to improve their joint congruence with the femoral heads.
In dogs between 5 and 8 months the Double Pelvic Osteotomy (DPO) represents an excellent surgical solution to correct the pathology, restoring a normal joint condition.
The intervention consists in the external rotation of the hip acetabulum that allows the normal joint coverage of the femur head, the decrease of laxity and the arrest of joint degeneration.
Among palliative techniques the Dorsal acetabular rim arthroplasty (DARthroplasty) is a surgical procedure to stabilize the dysplastic hip. A bone graft is planted over the joint capsule at the dorsal acetabular rim. A new extracapsular dorsal acetabular rim is formed and offers a supporting surface for the hip.
Finally, replacement interventions consist in completely replacing the joint through the implantation of a hip prosthesis.
Before choosing for invasive procedures, regenerative medicine may be used, for example using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) obtained from adipose tissue (also in combination with prp).
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can also be a valid non-invasive solution for the treatment of arthritis in dogs.
PRP rich in platelets and growth factors allows a rapid regeneration of tissues and recovery of injuries. PRP is obtained through an autologous blood sample (up to 10 ml of blood per kg of the patient’s weight can be collected ). The blood is processed to recover the greatest number of platelets, which are then resorted to in a solution in which the platelets are more concentrated than the initial blood. The prp obtained can be injected directly into the joint with immediately visible results regarding pain reduction and improvement in walking.
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